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Human Body

This page contains articles and explanations in somehow concise and plain language about human body and its systems, components and organs that together form it.

These articles are categorized in three different sections as follow:

Section 1: Know your body!

Human body is composed of various physiologic systems that together keep the body alive and active. Relying on precise complex communication mechanisms between its systems makes our body capable of doing most of biologic activities automatically and without possibility and/or necessity of our voluntary influence over these activities.


Despite autonomous configuration of our body systems, we have substantial ability to alter and improve its performance by applying spectrum of minor or major changes in our lifestyle. Such modifications in our daily life habits can potentially optimize our body’s physiologic performance and improve our body’s health condition. To promote our healthiness to a higher level, we need to know our body systems and their functions at least to some extent.

In this section, we will try to familiarize you with different systems of human body one by one through some brief explanations for their overall role in our body, their composing elements, their individual functions, and a few examples for disease conditions of each segment.

Click for Body System Articles:

2. Cosmetic Acupuncture
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1. Musculoskeletal system (MSK):

MSK system is responsible for moving our whole body or its parts under direct control of brain and nervous system. It consists of Bones, Muscles and some other related structures. Click the buttons below to see the definitions and functions of the parts that build musculoskeletal system:


  • Bones:

    • Characteristics: rigid and strong pieces that together compose body’s frame.

    • Function: holds the soft components of MSK in place to keep them functional.

    • Supplementary info: They are either long and pipe-like, or bulky and sponge-like. Long bones also have spongy texture at the ends.

    • Disease or injury conditions: osteoporosis, fractures

  • Joints:

    • Characteristics: meeting point of two or more different bones where they are in contact with each other. There is a layer of cartilage over the contacting surfaces of bones in the joints.

    • Function: to allow movement between different segments of MSK.

    • Supplementary info: There are various types of joints with different degrees of motion and stability according to their expected optimal function.

    • Disease or injury conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatologic arthritis

  • Joint cartilage (or articular cartilage):

    • Characteristics: white to light blue cartilage that covers bony surfaces in the joints where the bones are in contact with each other.

    • Function: Provides smooth and frictionless movement of joints, and acts as shock absorber.

    • Supplementary info: body lacks the natural ability to heal joint cartilage if it is worn or damaged. There are research studies for healing or regenerating joint cartilage by stem cells.

    • Disease or injury conditions: osteoarthritis

  • Meniscus or other similar mechanisms:

    • Characteristics: cartilaginous structures inside some joints made of specific type of cartilage with significant resistance against compression

    • Function: helps with joint stability, increases joint contact surface, acts as shock absorber, and improves joint cartilage nutrition.

    • Supplementary info: Meniscal tears usually cannot heal by themselves.

    • Disease or injury conditions: meniscal tear

  • Joint Fluid (Synovial Fluid):

    • Characteristics: viscous and clear amber-tinted fluid found in slight amount inside the joints and bursas.

    • Function: reduces the friction by acting as lubricant, and improves nutrition of joint cartilage.

    • Supplementary info: joint fluid production increases in inflammatory conditions.

    • Disease or injury conditions: arthritis due to infection, inflammation or injury

  • Joint capsule:

    • Characteristics: strong flexible white membrane that surrounds the joints like a wrapping barrel

    • Function: helps with joint stability and makes a physical barrier around the joint to keep the joint’s lubricating fluid contained inside the joints

    • Supplementary info: The inner layer of joint capsule is called synovium which makes joint fluid.

    • Disease or injury conditions: ruptures due to trauma

  • Ligaments:

    • Characteristics: Non-stretchable but soft and flexible tissues that originate from one bone and end in another bone by crossing the joints.

    • Function: keeps neighbouring bones in stable and constant contact in the joints and meanwhile allows controlled movements according to its placement, shape and strength.

    • Supplementary info: They can be located either inside the joints (such as ACL in knee joint) or outside the joints (like ankle ligaments).

    • Disease or injury conditions: sprains

  • Bursa (plural: bursae):

    • Characteristics: sac-like tissues found mainly around the joints and over bony bumps

    • Function: act like cushions to facilitate movements by reducing friction between bones and moving soft elements.

    • Supplementary info: inflammations result in increased thickness and fluid content of bursae

    • Disease or injury conditions: infection or inflammation (bursitis)

  • Muscles:

    • Characteristics: Red and soft contractile tissues that go from one bone to another, crossing one or two joints.

    • Function: Motor unit of MSK, moves bones in the joints by contracting, holds body erect by constant slight contraction

    • Supplementary info: In the head and face, there are some muscles that attach to skin instead of bones.

    • Disease or injury conditions: genetic dystrophies, strains

  • Tendons:

    • Characteristics: White flexible strong cord-like tissues which in one end attach to muscles and in the other end to bones.

    • Function: Transfers muscle contraction power to bones and move them in the joints; in most muscles they are found in one end of the muscle

    • Supplementary info: In some muscles they are long and similar to a rope

    • Disease or injury conditions: inflammations (tendinitis), ruptures

  • Fascia:

    • Characteristics: Thin and white membranes around muscles or between some bones

    • Function: in muscles wraps around muscles and encloses them to help with their stability, and separates different muscles. In bones maintains normal shapes (as in sole of feet)

    • Supplementary info: It is also found around internal organs

    • Disease or injury conditions: inflammations (plantar fasciitis), injuries (muscular hernias)

Facial Rejuvenation

Cosmetic acupuncture for facial rejuvenation is a combination of philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and newer studies and observations.

According to the principles of TCM, facial complexion (e.g. colour and lustre) represents each individual’s internal harmony. TCM believes that ‘Beauty should manifest from inside out.’ Therefore, a cosmetic acupuncture protocol is not solely performed on face. Your body’s state should be assessed according to TCM principles to discover possible imbalances that may affect your face which may require to be treated with inserting needles in specific points throughout your body.

To discuss further, let’s discuss briefly about aging.

What is biological aging?

Biological aging is a series of gradual and continuous changes in body tissues that naturally starts in early years of adulthood with a decline or loss of ability of the body to maintain the desired structure or function of body organs and tissues.

How natural process of aging affects face?

  1. Gradual weakening of main structure of facial skin (collagen) results in reduced dermal integrity.

  2. Distribution, consistency and thickness of subdermal fat changes with aging.

  3. Facial muscles that hold the skin begin to intensify the aging signs in face. Human face is very rich in tiny muscles that are responsible for the facial expressions. When facial muscles lose their tonicity because of aging, they lose their ability to hold the already weakened facial skin.

What are the known causes and determinants of facial aging?

  1. Genetics: this is one of the most important factors that causes face to look older.

  2. Lifestyle: some habits such as smoking intensify the progress of facial aging.

  3. Weather: prolonged and frequent exposure to direct sunlight or dry and cold weather may damage facial skin.

  4. Emotional and hormonal state: some hormones or mental-emotional conditions may affect facial skin and muscles health.

  5. Diseases: some diseases may speed up facial aging progress.

  6. Nutrition: low protein diet or dehydration may worsen the signs of facial aging.

  7. Type of facial skin: too dry or too oily skins tend to affect facial skin health.

  8. Facial hygiene and use of chemicals: harsh makeup products or soaps may damage facial skin. Leaving makeup for a long time also can have negative effects on skin.

What is the philosophy behind Cosmetic Acupuncture for Facial Rejuvenation?

  1. It increases tonicity of weakened facial muscles that have caused sagging.

  2. It stimulates collagen production inside the facial skin.

  3. It harmonizes mind and body interaction.

  4. It eliminates effect of external factors by providing targeted lifestyle recommendations.

What to expect in the first visit for facial acupuncture?

  1. First visit usually takes two hours and every aspect of your health will be reviewed.

  2. A comprehensive history will be taken followed by a physical exam.

  3. Your available health documents and daily medications and supplements will be reviewed

  4. Although it is very unlikely to have sufficient time to start the facial treatment during the first visit, it depends on the health condition of each individual and the remaining time unless a three hour visit is booked.

What procedures are done during follow-up cosmetic acupuncture visits and how do they work?

  1. Brief assessment: to assess the general response to previous treatments and to check the holistic status of each client

  2. Facial massage: it is a specific type of facial massage which is performed according to each client’s facial condition.

  3. Facial Acupuncture: it targets both facial skin and facial muscles with different techniques and needles that is done on three different zones of face separately.

  4. Bodily Acupuncture: to balance internal energies based on TCM philosophy

  5. Some techniques to reduce occurrence of bruising and to enhance the efficacy of needling after removing the needles

What adverse effects may occur during or after a facial acupuncture session?

Since cosmetic acupuncture is a natural approach for facial rejuvenation, it is generally considered a safe and non-aggressive method, however, some adverse effects may occasionally happen as the following.

  1. Bruising: although it is not common, it may happen in some instances especially in clients who are on blood thinners, have vascular diseases, or have innate tendency to bruise. We always adopt some specific measures to help reduce occurrences of bruising but it cannot be prevented on 100% of treatment sessions. In case it happens, it is generally absorbed in a couple of weeks.

  2. Infection: it is rare but may particularly happen in the clients with lower immunity conditions such as diabetics. To prevent infection, all the approved sterile techniques are utilized during each session.

  3. Skin discolouration: occasionally a little darkening of skin may occur at needle insertion points especially if too much needles are inserted. Employing correct techniques and inserting appropriate number of needles reduces occurrence of pigmentation considerably.

In conclusion, facial acupuncture is a safe procedure that stimulates the natural healing ability of the body without using any chemical agents or aggressive techniques.

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Section 1: Know your body

  • Defines body systems and their function distinctively.


Section 2: Factors affecting your body

  • Discusses the factors may influence body systems positively or negatively.


Section 3: Diseases and Injuries

  • Explains some of common disease conditions or injuries



Section 4: Cosmetic Acupuncture

  • Explains the facial aging fundamentals and its TCM-Based treatments

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